Monday, January 27, 2020
Pecola Breedlove In The Bluest Eye English Literature Essay What could he do for her Ã ¢Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â ¬ever. What give her. What say to her. What could a burned-out black man say to the hunched back of his eleven-year-old daughter. If he looked into her face, he would see those haunted loving eyes. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦How dare she love him? Hadnt she any sense at all? What was he supposed to do about that? Return it? How? What could his calloused hands produce to make her smile? (Morrison 127) In the above excerpt it seems nothing unusual that a father is musing on how best he could make his daughter feel loved, but what is most unusual is the outcome it yielded. In Toni Morrisons The Bluest Eye it is this point in the novel that the protagonist Pecola Breedlove is raped by her father Cholly, a most unexpected thing to do and the events in her life take the worst turn. Considering this to be an incident where there is a reversal of action, this paper would focus on Pecola and the discovery or recognition that comes post the reversal as in Aristotles Poetics. According to Aristotles definition of tragedy and the tragic elements, the devices required to make an effective (complex) plot structure are peripeteia and anagnorisis, translated as reversal and recognition. F. L. Lucas paraphrases Aristotles illustration in the like manner: A peripeteia occurs when a course of action intended to produce result x, produces the reverse of x. Thus the messenger from Corinth tries to ch eer Oedipus and dispel his fear of marrying his mother; but by revealing who Oedipus really is, he produces exactly the opposite result. (111) The peripeteia that Aristotle talks of brings about the anagnorisis, the realization of the truth, the opening of the eyes, the sudden lightning-flash in the darknessÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦the flash may come after the catastrophe, serving only to reveal it and complete it, as when Oedipus discovers his guilt. (Lucas 114) Another translation of Aristotles work reads it as: a change from ignorance [agnoia] to knowledge [gnosin]. (Aristotle 54) Electras recognition of Orestes or Oedipus recognition that he himself is his fathers murderer is suggestive of the fact that this recognition revolves round the politics of identity which would include the struggle for recognition. In lieu of this, the paper takes into consideration Pecolas predicament as an eleven year old black girl whose sole wish is to have blue eyes and thereby her negotiation with the identification process. Pecola prayed each night, without fail (Morrison 35) for blue eyes. Morrison has stated that the reason for Pecolas desire for getting blue eyes must be at least partially traced to the failures of Pecolas own community: she wanted to have blue eyes and she wanted to be Shirley Temple Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ because of the society in which she lived and, very importantly, because of the black people who helped her want to be that.(Morrison 32) Pecola symbolically occupies the interstitial space that in other words: has no specified place, and she floats on the peripheries of the community she longs to enter like a wraith looking for its missing body. She is constantly outdoors, never able to integrate herself into the community, always left on the peripheries, literally moving from house to house searching for a fixed place of comfort and security. Pecola has become homeless because her drunken father has destroyed their home, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬ ¢and everybody, as a result, was outdoors. (Morrison 12) Morrison in the Foreword writes that she is specifically interested in the far more tragic and disabling consequences of accepting rejection as legitimate, as self-evident (Morrison Ã Ã¢â¬ ) It is necessary to point out here that in Aristotles illustrations of anagnorisis as in Electras recognition of Orestes, it is by means of footprints and a lock of hair which suggest that external features are necessary for identification, so are her eyes necessary for Pecola. But for Pecola blue eyes is something she does not possess, the symbol of the culmination of beauty as per the hegemonic culture and thus feels deprived and her existence splintered. The eyes symbolize her wholeness which is an impossibility just as the eyes themselves are and her inability to locate or position herself vis-Ã -vis the normative discourse. Hence her mark of identification is not with a feature that is present but with the absent blue eyes. Barbara Christian points out that: The beauty searched for in the book is not just the possession of blue eyes, but the harmony that they symbolize. (24) But this harmony is what eludes her. Pecolas obsession with her eyes necessitates the presence of the leit motif of the mirror: Long hours she sat looking in the mirror, trying to discover the secret of her ugliness. (Morrison 34) The mirror and her quest for her identity lead us inevitably to Lacanian analysis. In the mirror stage, which is a forbidden realm for real image, we come into an image, which that world gives us, not a complete one, but fragmented, distorted image, which leads us to misrecognition(Bertons 161). Lacan believes identity which we acquire from the other is a form of fantasy and misrecognition. (Bertons 162) So, we become ourselves by way of others perspectives and others view of who we are. Kim describes it this way: Morrison explores the interplay of eyes as windows for gazes from the outside and for ones perception of the outside world (113-14). Lacan believes that the crucial point at which the child gives up the mother as love object and attaches to the father marks his exit from what he term s the imaginary and entrance into the symbolic order. In Pecolas case, Cholly Breedlove, her father, is unsuccessful in taking up the symbolic function, because he is deprived of phallic power by white culture, the ruling other in youth, and psychologically castrated, and his absence as the father figure ensures that Pecola continues her maintenance in pre-Oedipal moment, which results in lack of voice and hence the silence. Since Cholly couldnt take up the symbolic function in Pecolas post-mirror subjectivity, as a psychic subject, Pecola ultimately remains in the imaginary. Her failed attempt at gaining a unity or identifying with her father, after he rapes and abandons her, creates a void in her life. Indeed, the void in Pecolas psychic life can never be fulfilled in the domain of the symbolic. So, what Pecola does is to take the imaginary for the real. She keeps looking at her blue eyes in the mirror, and worries that her eyes are not the bluest. Pecola, as Claudia describes, lo oks like a winged but grounded bird, intent on the blue void it could not reach (Morrison 162). The moment of Chollys raping and abandoning her is crucial as Morrison writes of it in the Afterword: the silence at its center: the void that is Pecolas unbeing. (Morrison 171) F. L. Lucas opines that: the deepest tragedy occurs when their [the protagonist, here Pecola] destruction is the work of those that wish them well, or of their own unwitting hands. (112) Pecolas quest to establish the legitimacy of her identity is hindered by her father, resulting in her fragmentation, the metaphorical splintered mirror, a term which Morrison herself uses. Tragic recognition scenes are often moments of catastrophic loss as in Oedipus or that of Pecola. Contemporary theories and practices of recognition are grounded in more fundamental, ontological misrecognitions-that is, misrecognitions of the identity as well as of certain fundamental features of the social and political world and our place in it, says Stephen White.(10) Tragic anagnorisis would then involve not only in getting ones identity right, in a change from ignorance to knowledge, but also involves acknowledging often under the weight of failure, the limits to the possibility of doing so. An ontological discovery that is made by Pecola is that the one and only identity that she could have was by regressing into her childhood fantasy. In this she also acknowledges her powerlessness to contest or rather wrench her identity from the stifling, strangulating grip of the hegemonic culture codes. Morrison in the Afterword writes: She is not seen by herself until she hallucinates a s elf. (171) A critic writes that: Chollys deranged act of love was that terrifying, brutal blow which finally compelled her into madness. (Cormier 120) It is only the imaginary self, to whom Pecola converses, who actually recognizes her pair of blue eyes that the others envy. Shoshana Felman suggests as she writes that: Mental illness is a manifestation both of cultural impotence and political castration. This behaviour is itself part of female conditioning, ideologically inherent in the behavioural pattern and in the dependent and helpless role assigned to the woman as such. (119) Pecolas ontologically threatening encounter excluded her from the community in beauty and harmony and condemned her to psychic disintegration. Morrison tells the reader that It had occurred to Pecola some time ago that if her eyes, those eyes that held the pictures, and knew the sights-if those eyes of hers were different, that is to say, beautiful, she herself would be different hence her fervent desire for those blue eyes. (46) But Pecola by her subversive desire was both under and over (but really simply outside of) the sphere of cultures hegemony as Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubar would say (27) and it is the sacrilegious fiendishness of what William Blake called the Female Will' (28) that ushers in her un-being. The manner in which Oedipus determinedly searched for the murderer of the King that led to his un-being, Pecola too struggles to pursue her identity. But insanity is what awaits her as it does to all those mysterious power[s]Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦who refuse to stay in her[their] textually ordained place' (Gilbert 32) For a postmodern self as Pecola the possibility of and the desire for a unitary self is absurd. The inconsistent, heterogeneous being that constitutes a subject Pecola is revealed in the end when she converses with her other: Why didnt I know you before? You didnt need me before. Didnt need you? Just because I got blue eyes, bluer than theirs, theyre prejudiced. Thats right. They are bluer, arent they? Oh, yes. Much bluerÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ What? What will we talk about? Why, your eyes. Oh, yes. My eyes. My blue eyes. Let me look again. See how pretty they are. Yes. They get prettier each time I look at them. They are the prettiest Ive ever seen. (154-59) Cormier-Hamilton states, For Pecola, beauty equals happiness, and it is difficult to fault a young girl for the misperception; certainly both white and black communities in her world seem to support the idea (115). It is this misperception that paradoxically leads her to her misrecognition. The void that her father created in her could not have been fulfilled but by her un-being, hence this is an anagnorisis as anagnorisis undone or to use Darko Suvins phrase cognitive estrangement.(22) Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubar write: Either way, the images on the surface of the looking glass, into which the female artist peers in search of her self, warn her that she is or must be a Cypher, framed and framed up, indited and indicted. (36) It is this apparently calm surface of the normative that Pecola challenges and threatens from the margins to which she is relegated. Her discovery or recognition, anagnorisis in Aristotelian terms is that her psychological wholeness (Cormier 111) is in her slivered state, hence a peculiar case of anagnorisis undone. Word Count 1915
Sunday, January 19, 2020
J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings J.R.R TolkienÃ¢â¬â¢s The Lord of the Rings strikes a cord with almost everyone who reads it. Its popularity has not waned with the passing of time, nor is its appeal centered on one age group or generation. Book sales would indicate that The Lord of the Rings is at least as popular now as it ever was, if not more so. Some estimates put it at the second highest selling work of all time, following only the bible. While it is certainly an exciting and well written work of fantasy, which cannot help but grip the imagination, all this would be for naught except for the poignancy of the themes which serve as its backbone. Foremost of these is TolkienÃ¢â¬â¢s determination to show the natural world as the measure of all things. His world revolves around nature, and his characterÃ¢â¬â¢s affinity to it determines their place in Middle-Earth. The structure of the history of Middle-earth is based on the natural cycle of life. TolkienÃ¢â¬â¢s chronicle, stretching back through the various ages of the world, is at its heart a simple story of good vs. evil. The balance of power does not swing chaotically however. Tolkien sets the world on a cyclical system. As Gandalf says, Ã¢â¬Å"Always after a defeat and a respite, the Shadow takes another shape and grows again.Ã¢â¬ (Fellowship, 76). Additionally, the world is also divided into various ages, declining in their greatness as time passes. The First age for instance, is filled with greater beings, both good and evil, who inevitably clash, often eliminating themselves in the process. In earlier days the elves were still numerous, the dwarves ruled their great holdfast of Moria, and evil beings such as Sauron and the Balrogs were but servants to the great dark lord Mo... ...uity through art, a link which would preserve some of the faded glory of the past. (Stanton, 93) Tolkien tells us Ã¢â¬Å"Farie contains many things besides elves and fays, and besides dwarfs, witches, trolls, giants, or dragons: it holds the seas, the sun, the moon, the sky; and the earth, and all things that are in it: tree and bird, water and stone, wine and bread, and ourselves, mortal men, when we are enchanted.Ã¢â¬ ( On fairy Stories, 9). This applies well to The Lord of the Rings. Farie, representing nature, is an intrinsic part of our lives. To ignore it or destroy it can only bring us trouble. With nature man finds art, beauty, abundance, and joy. All good things from nature, and all evil comes from its lack and destruction. To Tolkien, a world without nature was no world worth living in, and in The Lord of the Rings, he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t let us forget it. J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings Essay -- Tolkien Lord Rings Ess J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings J.R.R TolkienÃ¢â¬â¢s The Lord of the Rings strikes a cord with almost everyone who reads it. Its popularity has not waned with the passing of time, nor is its appeal centered on one age group or generation. Book sales would indicate that The Lord of the Rings is at least as popular now as it ever was, if not more so. Some estimates put it at the second highest selling work of all time, following only the bible. While it is certainly an exciting and well written work of fantasy, which cannot help but grip the imagination, all this would be for naught except for the poignancy of the themes which serve as its backbone. Foremost of these is TolkienÃ¢â¬â¢s determination to show the natural world as the measure of all things. His world revolves around nature, and his characterÃ¢â¬â¢s affinity to it determines their place in Middle-Earth. The structure of the history of Middle-earth is based on the natural cycle of life. TolkienÃ¢â¬â¢s chronicle, stretching back through the various ages of the world, is at its heart a simple story of good vs. evil. The balance of power does not swing chaotically however. Tolkien sets the world on a cyclical system. As Gandalf says, Ã¢â¬Å"Always after a defeat and a respite, the Shadow takes another shape and grows again.Ã¢â¬ (Fellowship, 76). Additionally, the world is also divided into various ages, declining in their greatness as time passes. The First age for instance, is filled with greater beings, both good and evil, who inevitably clash, often eliminating themselves in the process. In earlier days the elves were still numerous, the dwarves ruled their great holdfast of Moria, and evil beings such as Sauron and the Balrogs were but servants to the great dark lord Mo... ...uity through art, a link which would preserve some of the faded glory of the past. (Stanton, 93) Tolkien tells us Ã¢â¬Å"Farie contains many things besides elves and fays, and besides dwarfs, witches, trolls, giants, or dragons: it holds the seas, the sun, the moon, the sky; and the earth, and all things that are in it: tree and bird, water and stone, wine and bread, and ourselves, mortal men, when we are enchanted.Ã¢â¬ ( On fairy Stories, 9). This applies well to The Lord of the Rings. Farie, representing nature, is an intrinsic part of our lives. To ignore it or destroy it can only bring us trouble. With nature man finds art, beauty, abundance, and joy. All good things from nature, and all evil comes from its lack and destruction. To Tolkien, a world without nature was no world worth living in, and in The Lord of the Rings, he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t let us forget it.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
How to reduce absenteeism in organisations 1. Identify the causes for an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s absenteeism. If you can find out why an employee is consistently absent, then you can deal more effectively with the problem. For example, if an employee is often absent because of issues with childcare, you could offer them the option of more flexible working hours. 2. Implement a thorough record system. For every employee, you should record the date, duration and reason for each case of absenteeism.This way you will have evidence of each absence if you need to refer back to it. 3. Meticulously follow up on each case of absenteeism. You should write a letter recording each case of absenteeism and distribute it to the employee. This will make them aware they are being monitored and make them more likely to think before they take a sick day. 4. Properly inform and regularly update your employees about your standards and policies regarding absenteeism.If you make a change to your absenteeism poli cy, make sure you let your employees know. Even if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t make a change, you should still remind your employees regularly of the standards you have in place. You could do this via a company-wide email or memo. Employee absence is a significant cost to 90% of businesses, according to the survey. This section outlines ten tips to help you in managing absence and tackling poor performance in the workplace. Top 10 Absence Management Tips: Create an absence policy and communicate it 2 Record and measure absence 3 Reduce absenteeism by enforcing and managing the staff absence policy 4 Follow employee absence with return to work interviews 5 Proactive absence management Ã¢â¬â reward excellent attendance 6 Be realistic Ã¢â¬â plan for unscheduled staff absence 7 Consider unpaid leave or options to buy more holiday time 8 Minimise absence by improving their working conditions 9 Make controlling absenteeism a business priority 10 Keep your staff absence policy up-to-date
Friday, January 3, 2020
To me teaching is one of the most important jobs in the world. To make a difference in a childÃ¢â¬â¢s life is a huge privilege. There are many key attributes to being an effective teacher but for me some of the key attributes are effective communication and establishing good relationships, guide childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour, setting up a good environment for learning and being well organised. They are many other factors that also need to be considered not to become just a good teacher but a great teacher. Effective communication is one key element to being an efficient teacher. Communication can be verbal or non-verbal. Communication not only between your students but also the parents, your colleagues, and the community. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s fair to say weÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦By having an open and respectful relationship with families, they are more likely to trust you. Once trust is established they will feel comfortable to share information with you about home life whether it is good or bad. Effective communication requires appropriate staff time and physical space where staff and families can talk meaningful and confidentially with educators who are open to diverse perspectives (Arthur, et al. 2008, p. 51). To establish good relationships with your students you need to have good personal qualities and characteristics. For example being natural Ã¢â¬â children can sense when you are not genuine. Being warm Ã¢â¬â showing you care and want to be there. Show them good body language and respect. Being pleasant Ã¢â¬â showing a friendly and positive attitude. Being approachableÃ¢â¬â having good listening skills and interest in what the child is saying, is the teacher whom we see as being approachable. Being tolerant Ã¢â¬â accepting each child as an individual, being fair and consistent (Barry King, 1997, pp. 94-95). 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